Hay Fever Rash Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment – Its medical name is allergic rhinitis, a disease that is triggered by allergens such as dust, pollen and cigarette smoke and manifests itself in the inflammation of the nasal mucosa. The allergy to pollen is seasonal. Aggravation usually occurs in the summer, especially on hot and windy days, when the pollen soars in the air. On the other hand, if the allergen is normal dust or animal hair, the disease is less acute, but throughout the year.
Allergic rhinitis often appears together with vasomotor rhinitis, when the nose becomes extremely sensitive to irritants such as cigarette smoke, other air pollutants, changes in temperature and humidity, certain foods, medicines and emotional stress. Other allergic diseases, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis, also increase the risk of allergic rhinitis. Hay fever usually develops before the age of 30 and affects mainly women, not men. Hay fever caused by pollen is also known as pollinosis.
What is Hay Fever?
Hay fever also known as allergic rhinitis, is a common condition that shows signs and symptoms such as sneezing, nasal congestion, runny and sinus pressure. Allergic rhinitis according to WHO (2001) is a nasal disorder after nasal mucosa is exposed by IgE-mediated allergens with symptoms of sneezing, rinorrhea, itching of the nose and nasal congestion.
It is estimated that about 20% of people in Western Europe and North America suffer some degree of rhinitis. Although rhinitis can begin to occur at any age, it generally develops during childhood or possibly early adulthood. The majority of people with fever find their symptoms decrease in severity as they age.
Symptoms of Hay Fever (Allergic Rhinitis)
The first symptoms are irritation, itching in the nose, pharynx, on the palate, inflammation and redness of the eyes. Further there is a runny nose, sneezing, labored breathing, eyes begin to water. In some cases, conjunctivitis may develop. However, you need to know the detail fo Hay Fever symptoms completely as follows.
Symptoms of rhinitis can begin at different times throughout the year, it depends on what substance the patient allergies. If a person is allergic to common pollen, then when the amount of pollen is higher the symptoms will be more severe.
Common symptoms include: Sneezing; Watery eyes; Itchy throat; Itchy nose; Blocked / runny.
Severe symptoms may include: Sweating; Headache; Loss of smell and taste; Facial pain caused by sinus blocked; Itching spread from the throat, to the nose and ears.
Sometimes the symptoms of rhinitis can cause: Fatigue; Irritability; Insomnia.
People with asthma may find that when symptoms of rhinitis appear then the episodes of wheezing and shortness of breath become more severe. If the symptoms are caused by nonallergic rhinitis (eg due to a viral infection), you may experience other symptoms like a crust that grows inside the nose and give off a bad smell. This crust will bleed if you try to lift or scratch it.
Hay Fever Diagnosis
Generally, doctors can make a symptom-based diagnosis, which is usually quite obvious. The doctor will also ask about the patient’s personal medical history and medical history, and the extent to which signs and symptoms have been addressed so far. A blood or skin test can be followed up to identify the substance (s) of the patient’s allergies: Skin test and also blood tests.
Skin test is pierced skin with a matter of minutes from known allergens (substances that cause some people allergies). The number of IgE antibodies (immunoglobulin E) was measured. IgE antibodies are produced in high quantities if a person has an allergy to something. Meanwhile, blood test is the test only measures the level of IgE antibodies in the blood. If the result is zero there is no sensitivity, while 6 indicates very high sensitivity.
Rhinitis has a risk of complications, but this is rare. The following are possible complications of rhinitis. The first is sinusitis – infection occurs because the snot can not flow from the sinus due to swelling and inflammation of the nasal cavity.
The second, middle ear infections that the ear part located behind the eardrum may be infected by rhinitis. The third is nasal polyp – the tissue that grows in the nasal cavity and sinus hole due to inflammation in the nasal cavity wall. Surgery may be needed to deal with a severe and long-standing problem, but if it is not too severe, the problem can be treated with medication.
Causes of Hay Fever or Rhinitis
The cause of rhinitis is an allergy usually to pollen, fungi, hair, animal hair, dust. These substances are harmless for most people, but for allergics when inhaled they cause a hypertrophied immune response. In this case, a cascade of biochemical reactions is triggered, as a result of which there is a massive release of histamine and other chemical compounds into the blood, which cause inflammation and the formation of mucus in the nasal passages and nasal sinuses.
Rhinitis occurs when the immune system assesses the presence of harmful substances in the air as a threat. The presence of harmful substances that make the immune system to react to produce antibodies called immunoglobulin E to attack these harmful substances.
Once the antibodies are released it will be released also the chemical histamine that causes the symptoms. The originator of rhinitis includes pollen and spores that will only cause symptoms during certain months of the year.
Here are some examples of rhinitis triggers:
Pollen trees – this tends to affect people in the spring.
Grass pollen – this tends to affect people later in the spring and also in summer.
Weed pollen – this is more common during the fall (autumn).
Mushrooms and mold spores – this is more common when the weather is warm.
The Risk Factors for Rhinitis
A risk factor is something that increases a person’s likelihood of having a disease or condition. Here are some risk factors of rhinitis as follows:
Family history (inheritance, genetics) – if you have a close family member who suffers from rhinitis then the risk of exposure will also be higher.
Other allergies – people with other allergies are more likely to suffer from rhinitis.
Asthma – a large number of asthmatics also suffer from rhinitis.
Gender and age – More rhinitis affects boys than girls.
Date of birth – people born during high pollen season have a higher risk of rhinitis.
Passive smokers – babies who are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke during the first few years of their lives are more likely to get rhinitis than infants who do not.
Being the first child – the eldest child has a higher percentage of suffering from rhinitis.
Babies from smaller families – babies without siblings have a higher proportion of rhinitis than babies from large families.
Babies born to high-income families – babies born to families with high standards of living have a higher risk of developing rhinitis later in life, compared to other infants.
Experts believe that the last three risk factors are associated with childhood infections.
Hay Fever Treatments
In the pharmacotherapy of hay fever, five main groups of drugs are used: antihistamines; Glucocorticosteroids; Stabilizers of mast cell membranes; Vasoconstrictor drugs; Anticholinergics. When taking antihistamines in patients, the symptoms of allergic rhinitis, such as itching in the nose, sneezing, discharge from the nose, are significantly reduced. These drugs are effective even with concomitant allergic conjunctivitis.
The basic methods of Hay Fever treatment also include allergen-specific immunotherapy, which allows you to increase the duration of remission (no symptoms of the disease) to several years, reduce the need for medications during the season of exposure to allergens, and prevent the transition of allergic rhinitis to bronchial asthma. This type of therapy is indicated in patients with hay fever with clearly established allergens.
Antihistamine sprays or tablets – these are usually available on the table. This drug works to stop the release of chemical histamine. They are usually effective in relieving the symptoms of colds, itching and sneezing. Rhinocystamines tend to cause drowsiness.
Examples of antihistamines OTC include loratadine (Claritin, Alavert) and cetirizine (Zyrtec). Examples of prescribed antihistamines include Fexofenadine (Allegra) and azelastine nasal spray (Astelin). Azelastine starts to work very quickly and can be used up to 8 times a day – however, Causing drowsiness and leaving a bad taste in the mouth after use.
Decongestants are used over a short period of time to help relieve nasal congestion and sinus pressure. Ask your doctor before using this medication if you have high blood pressure.
Eyedrops – this reduces itching and swelling in the eyes and is usually used with other drugs. Eye drops containing commonly used chromoglycates.
Nasal Corticosteroids – a spray to treat inflammation caused by rhinitis, and is a safe and very effective long-term treatment. Examples include fluticasone (Flonase), fluticasone (Veramyst), mometasone (NASONEX) and beclomethasone (Beconase). Most patients may have to wait about a week before experiencing significant benefits.
Oral corticosteroids – for very severe symptoms of hay fever doctors may prescribe prednisone in pill form. They should be prescribed only for short-term use, because their long-term linking is cataregal, muscle weakness and osteoporosis.
Desensitization of treatment (immunotherapy) – this treatment is used to be more common in the UK, but is now very rarely used and not used at all in the United States, as it can cause some very strong reactions. This treatment is only performed in centers that are very specialized for patients with severe symptoms.
Alternative therapies – some alternative therapies claim to be able to treat rhinitis effectively. A study published in the Medical Journal of Australia conducted by researchers at the University of Melbourne, suggests that acupuncture can effectively treat persistent allergic rhinitis symptoms (MJA 2007, 187 (6): 337-341) ..
It is important to remember that while some patients report on the benefits of alternative therapies, much of the information read in books and on the internet is anecdotal. For convincing therapy, should undergo proper and good clinical trials compared to just placebo (dummy treatment). Before undergoing any complementary / alternative therapies, check it out carefully.
In addition to medications, you can also clear the nasal passages to help keep the nose free from irritants. Immunotherapy can also be done to treat allergic rhinitis and is usually done if symptoms are severe. However, this therapy should be performed under the supervision of a trained medical specialist.
You can even make your own treatments to avoid hay fever attacking you as follows:
Do not open the windows and doors in an apartment or office. Ventilate the room after the rain, in the evening and when there is no wind (when the concentration of pollen in the air decreases). On an open window or door, you can hang a well-moistened sheet or gauze in several layers.
The highest concentration of pollen in the air is observed early in the morning and on dry hot days, therefore during this period of time it is especially not recommended to go out. After returning from the street, you should change your clothes. Close the windows in the car while traveling.
Take a shower at least twice a day. Do not dry things after washing on the street (or on the balcony), because Pollen settles on them.
Daily spend wet cleaning in the apartment, it is also recommended to use cleaners and humidifiers, use of an air conditioner with filters on the outlet.
Thoroughly take medications prescribed by your doctor, and keep a diary of your condition, this will help your doctor prevent allergy manifestations in the future.
Additionally, the best way to prevent allergy symptoms is to manage your allergies before your body has a chance to respond to allergens. Another effective way to prevent allergic rhinitis is to avoid allergens that cause your symptoms. For example, stay indoors when there is a high amount of pollen, and shower immediately after being outside.
Also clean your home from pet fur, mildew, and dust. Well, this article of Hay Fever Rash Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment may help you to find the answers of your questions related to this symptom.