Catabolic Vs Anabolic Pathways, Stages, and Reactions

Catabolic Vs Anabolic Pathways, Stages, and Reactions – You must be wondering and even searching for the facts and information related to the processes happen in your body. It is really necessary to understand about the metabolism of the body in order to avoid possibility of bad things. Even more, if you do a diet program, this article may open your mind to do this program carefully. Well, here we give you important information about that. In fact, In metabolism, there are two interrelated, but multi directional processes – anabolism and catabolism.

Let’s talk about two main types of metabolic reactions. The word metabolism means biochemistry. Two types are called anabolic and catabolic. Anabolic reactions associated with growth. Catabolic is related to the release and production of energy. Every second moment of reaction happens. The collective of all these reactions is called metabolism. For detailed information, please stay tune and read article below.

Catabolism and Anabolism Definition


Catabolism (dissimilation) is the process of decay of complex substances in the cells of the body to simpler ones or to the formation of low molecular weight final products of decomposition (CO2, H2O, NH3, etc.) and their elimination from the body. Catabolic reactions are accompanied by the release of free energy, which is contained in complex molecules of organic substances. Part of this energy is converted into a chemical form of energy (ATP, NADH2, etc.) and stored in the cells of the body. Most of the energy is dissipated as heat.

Anabolism (assimilation) are the processes of synthesis of complex chemical substances from simple molecules. In the process of anabolism, nucleic acids, proteins and other macromolecules of the body are formed. This aspect of metabolism also includes the reactions of the disintegration of nutrients during digestion, as they provide the entry into the cells of the building material and energy necessary for the processes of anabolism. Anabolic reactions occur using chemical energy in the form of ATP or NADH2.

Anabolism and catabolism are multi directional processes and occur independently of each other. However, they are closely interrelated. Catabolic processes supply metabolites and energy for anabolic processes. Anabolic reactions accumulate (store) complex nutrients and energy, which creates the possibility of further reactions of catabolism.

Under the influence of physical exertion, the overall intensity of metabolism increases, especially the catabolic processes in skeletal muscles and other tissues of the body. They provide energy to the working muscles. The rate of anabolism decreases due to energy deficiency. During the rest period, after the work is done, both processes work intensively. Their balance comes after the restoration of protein biosynthesis processes, which, depending on the type of physical work performed, can last from 12 to 72 hours.

During the recovery period after physical exertion, excessive accumulation of individual energy substrates and protein compounds is observed, which is called the processes of super reduction. Such adaptability of metabolism creates the conditions for increasing the functional capabilities of the body, improving its physical abilities in the process of sports training.

Catabolic Processes And Reactions

In catabolic process, cells use monomers released from polymer breakdown, either to build new polymer molecules, or to break down the monomers further into simple waste products, to release energy. Cellular waste includes lactic acid, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and urea. Well, an oxidation process is get involved in the release of chemical free energy. Some of them are lost as heat. However, this is used to promote the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

This molecule acts as a way for the cells to transfer the energy released by catabolism into a reaction that requires energy, which forms anabolism. Catabolism is seen as destructive metabolism which provides the chemical energy necessary for cell maintenance and growth. While, anabolism is seen as a constructive metabolism. Examples of catabolic processes:

  • citric acid cycle;

  • glycolysis;

  • muscle protein.

They breakdown to use amino acids as substrates for gluconeogenesis. While fat breakdown in adipose tissue into oxidative deamination of neurotransmitters and also fatty acids. These are done by monoamine oxidase. Meanwhile, the catabolic processes and reactions are below:

  1. Digestion is a catabolic activity. Here you start with a large food molecule and then water is used to break the bonds in the molecule. The smaller molecules are then sent to the cells in your body to participate in cell respiration, which is a process that converts biochemical energy into ATP, a molecule with very high energy.

  1. Cellular respiration is also a catabolic process because it breaks small molecules from the digestion into smaller ones, as the manufacture of ATP. These are both very important processes, because ATP is what your cells use to generate body heat, move the muscles and other important bodily functions.

Anabolic Processes and Reactions

The energy needed for anabolism is supplied by energy-rich molecules, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This energy exists in the form of high-energy chemical bonds between the second and third molecules of phosphate in ATP. ATP energy is released when this bond breaks, turning ATP into adenosine diphosphate (ADP).

During anabolic reactions, high-energy phosphate bonds from ATP are transferred to a substrate (an enzyme-working molecule) to provide energy in preparation for subsequent molecular use as a feedstock for greater molecular synthesis. Additionally, some anabolic processes also require high-energy hydrogen atoms which happen to ATP. Those atoms are provided by NADPH molecules.

Cells regulate the rate of anabolic reactions through allosteric enzymes. The activity of these enzymes increases or decreases in response to the presence or absence of the end product of a series of reactions. For example, this amino acid inhibits the action of the allosteric enzyme if a serial anabolic reaction produces a particular amino acid.

This process is done by reducing the synthesis of amino acids. The following are the examples of anabolic biochemical reactions:

  1. Polysaccharides: Polysaccharides serve as examples of anabolism. It is because the polysaccharides come from simple monosaccharide subunits. A simple example is the formation of glycogen which is a polysaccharide consisting of a glucose monosaccharide subunit connected by a glycosidic bond.

  1. Polypeptides: Polypeptides are an example of anabolism because polypeptides are derived from simple peptide subunits. Polypeptides such as hemoglobin consist of four different proteins (essentially peptides) that together form completely different proteins. The result of an anabolic reaction is the peptide. It is because the condensation reaction (simple amino acids merges and forms a peptide chain).

  1. Carbon Fixation: this happens in photosynthetic organisms such as plants, cyanobacteria, algae and other photoautotrophs organisms.. The fixation of carbon dioxide is done into glycerate 3-phosphate, which then is further converted into glucose. Beginning with photosynthesis, carbohydrate synthesis comes from sunlight and carbon dioxide. This process uses ATP and NADPH generated by photosynthetic reactions to convert CO2 into 3-phosphate glycerate. It is a much larger and complex biochemical compound.

Stages Of The Disintegration Of Nutrients And Energy Extraction In Cells

Well, after knowing the definition of catabolic and anabolic, here we give you next information of the stages on how the process of metabolism in the body. For the metabolism is characterized by a multi stage nature of the processes occurring. The disintegration of nutrients in the cells of the body and the extraction of energy from them take place gradually, including three main stages: preparatory, the stage of universalization and the stage of oxidative decomposition.

  1. Preparatory Stage

At the preparatory stage, complex molecules of carbohydrates, fats and proteins break down to simple structural monomers: proteins – up to 20 different amino acids, complex carbohydrates – to monosaccharides, mainly glucose, fats – to glycerol and fatty acids. At this stage, an insignificant amount of energy is released: in the breakdown of proteins and carbohydrates, 0.6% of the potential energy, with the breakdown of fats – about 1%.

Such a breakdown of nutrients occurs in the digestive system under the action of digestive enzymes and in various tissues under the influence of interstitial enzymes.

  1. Universalization Stage

The various substances formed at the universalization stage are converted into a single substance – acetyl-CoA, which is an active form of acetic acid. Athecil-CoA plays a major role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, because it combines the ways of the transformation of various substances of organic substances. At this stage, 1/3 of the potential energy contained in the oxidizable substances is released.

  1. Oxidation Stage

The oxidation stage of nutrients is the final metabolic pathway through the breakdown of all nutrients. In the process of complex oxidative transformations. Acetyl-CoA decomposes to the final products of CO2 and H2O. At the same time, about 2/3 of the nutrient energy is released. Part of the energy is released in the form of heat, and the other part is accumulated in the chemical bonds of ATP molecules (a universal energy source in the body).

The moral is this: without catabolism there will be no anabolism, do not try to suppress the first, better try to positively influence the second. Instead of becoming a victim of marketing and every day after awakening rush headlong for the purpose of kneading the protein, it is better to learn how to sleep normally.

In addition to nutrition, we assume that it meets at least some of the standards for BJU, we need a surplus of some minerals, vitamins and vitamin-like substances that are responsible for the synthesis of protein and show an anabolic effect.

Differences Anabolism and Catabolism

Even catabolism and anabolism have important role in metabolism process, they have differences. Look what are the differences between them below:


  1. Anabolism is a constructive metabolic phase.

  2. The complex molecules (eg proteins) are synthesized from simple molecules (amino acids).

  3. Anabolism is a process that requires energy (ATP).

  4. Examples of anabolic processes: protein synthesis, glycogen synthesis.


  1. Catabolism is a destructive metabolic phase.

  2. The complex molecules are broken down into simple molecules (glucose).

  3. Catabolism is a process that releases energy (ATP).

  4. Examples of catabolism processes: Glycogenolysis, Glycolysis.

Maintaining Body Weight


What is the relation between body weight and metabolic process? Well, if you are an adult, this is however high you will get. None of us grow tall. There is only one direction we can grow and wider. Because most of us do not really want to grow wider which means we have molecules of disturbance in our body as soon as we make them or we will become fat.

Even body builders that increase protein in their body cells will never grow taller, but more broadly. If we want to get thinner, we have to slow down the growth reaction. How? Eat a little. The way you form organic molecules from food.

Eatting less can slow the running of anabolic reaction. If you do things that require energy, like exercise, that speeds up the breakdown of fats and carbohydrates for energy and speed up catabolic reactions. If you want to get thinner, eat less and do exercise. Accelerate practice until catabolic reactions.

For adults, we just keep the balance of anabolic and catabolic as we live the same weight. [For children, this reaction should not be in equilibrium. In children, anabolic reactions must be greater than the catabolic. Boys start accelerating their growth after girls.

That’s why when they are in 7th or 8th grade, girls are still taller than boys. Children change a few years after the girls. One can obtain 2-3 inches of accelerated growth between 14-17 years. During the growing period they will eat all the food in your refrigerator. They grew so fast during that time. But what happens to boys and girls in 18-19 is that if they keep eating in the same way, they will not grow taller but just wider. This is a phenomenon of people notices.

Well, this article of Catabolic Vs Anabolic Pathways, Stages, and Reactions may help you to find out the answer of your question. So, the facts of metabolism processes and reactions in your body do exist. Keep eating healthy food is very recommended for you to balance the metabolism process in the body. While, diet program should be also careful by controlling the menu and also your activities balancing. Hope you like and share this article.

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